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UPSC CSE 2021
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Study Materials for UPSC Civil Services 2021 Preparation

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CURRENT EVENTS

HISTORY

 

 

 

INDIAN HISTORY

 

 

ANCIENT INDIA

 

 

MEDIEVAL INDIA

 

 

MODERN INDIA

 

 

 

RISE OF BRITISH POWER

 

 

 

CULTURAL AND SOCIAL CHANGES INDIA

 

 

 

RESISTANCE TO BRITISH RULE

 

 

 

INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (FREEDOM STRUGGLE)

 

 

 

GANDHI AND HIS THOUGHT

 

 

POST INDEPENDENCE INDIA

GEOGRAPHY

 

 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

 

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

 

GEOGRAPHY OF THE WORLD

 

GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

 

 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY (INDIA)

 

 

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY (INDIA)

 

 

POPULATION (INDIA)

 

 

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY (INDIA)

POLITICAL SCIENCE

 

INDIAN POLITY

 

 

INDIAN CONSTITUTION

 

 

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES

 

 

THE UNION EXECUTIVE

 

 

THE PARLIAMENT (INDIA)

 

 

THE JUDICIARY (INDIA)

 

 

THE STATE EXECUTIVE (INDIA)

 

 

INDIAN PARTY SYSTEM

 

 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

 

 

PANCHAYAT RAJ

 

 

CHALLENGES TO INDIAN DEMOCRACY

ECONOMICS

 

 

INDIAN ECONOMICS

 

 

MAIN FEATURES (INDIAN ECONOMICS)

 

 

MAJOR ECONOMIC PROBLEMS(INDIA)

 

 

ECONOMIC GROWTH(INDIA)

 

 

ECONOMIC PLANNING (INDIA)

 

 

ECONOMIC POLICIES(INDIA)

GENERAL SCIENCE

 

ELEMENTARY CHEMISTRY

 

 

MATTER NATURE AND BEHAVIOUR

 

 

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES NATURE AND BEHAVIOUR

 

 

ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS

 

 

METALS AND NON METALS

 

 

CARBON COMPOUNDS

 

ELEMENTARY PHYSICS

 

 

WAVE MOTION AND SOUND

 

 

SOUND

 

 

EFFECTS OF CURRENT

 

 

LIGHT

 

 

SUN AND NUCLEAR ENERGY

 

 

EXPLORING UNIVERSE

 

ELEMENTARY BIOLOGY

 

 

BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

 

 

ORGANISATION IN LIVING WORLD

 

 

TISSUES, ORGANS, ORGAN SYSTEMS, ORGANISM

 

 

LIFE PROCESSES

 

 

HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION

 

 

FOOD

 

 

ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

 

SCIENCE IN EVERYDAY LIFE

 

SPORTS AND RECREATION

GENERAL MENTAL ABILITY

 

VERBAL TESTS

 

 

REASONING TESTS

 

 

 

ANALYTICAL REASONING

 

 

 

DIRECTION AND DISTANCE TEST

 

 

 

ANALOGY TEST

 

 

 

CLASSIFICATION (ODD MAN OUT) TEST

 

 

 

CODING DECODING TEST

 

 

 

NUMBER TEST

 

 

 

SERIES TEST

 

 

 

RELATIONSHIPS TEST

 

 

 

ALPHA NUMERIC SYMBOL SEQUENCE TESTS

 

 

 

ALPHABET TEST

 

 

 

RANKING TESTS

 

 

 

TIME SEQUENCE TEST

 

 

 

MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS

 

 

 

LOGICAL WORD SEQUENCE TEST

 

 

 

INSERT MISSING CHARACTERS TEST

 

 

 

CUBES AND CUBICAL DICE TESTS

 

 

 

DATA ARRANGEMENT TEST

 

 

 

DATA SUFFICIENCY TEST

 

 

LOGIC TESTS

 

 

 

LOGICAL (CRITICAL) REASONING

 

 

 

SYLLOGISM

 

 

 

STATEMENTS ASSUMPTIONS

 

 

 

STATEMENTS ARGUMENTS

 

 

 

STATEMENTS CONCLUSIONS

 

 

 

STATEMENTS ACTION

 

 

 

LOGICAL DIAGRAMS (VENN DIAGRAMS)

 

NON VERBAL TESTS

 

 

PROBLEMS BASED ON SYMMETRY

 

 

SERIES (NON VERBAL TESTS)

 

 

GROUPING OF IDENTICAL FIGURES

QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE

 

ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS

 

 

ARITHMETIC (NUMBER THEORY)

 

 

 

NUMBER SYSTEMS

 

 

 

SURDS AND INDICES

 

 

 

SQUARE ROOTS

 

 

 

FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS

 

 

 

H.C.F. AND L.C.M.

 

 

 

SIMPLIFICATION

 

 

 

APPROXIMATIONS

 

 

 

RATIO AND PROPORTION

 

 

 

AVERAGE

 

 

 

LOGARITHMS

 

 

 

AGES

 

 

 

BOATS AND STREAMS

 

 

 

MIXTURE AND ALLIGATION

 

 

 

PIPES AND CISTERNS

 

 

 

PROBLEMS ON TRAINS

 

 

 

UNITARY METHOD

 

COMMERCIAL MATHS

 

 

INTEREST

 

 

PERCENTAGE

 

 

PROFIT AND LOSS

 

 

PARTNERSHIP

 

 

DISCOUNTS

 

GEOMETRY

 

MENSURATION- AREAS AND VOLUMES

 

 

AREA AND PERIMETER OF PLANE FIGURE

 

 

VOLUME AND SURFACE AREA OF SOLID

 

DATA COMPARISON

 

DATA SUFFICIENCY TEST

 

DATA INTERPRETATION (DI)

ENGLISH

 

 

 

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 

ENGLISH VOCABULARY

 

ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

 

ENGLISH USAGE ERRORS

 

ENGLISH COMPREHENSION

 

 

 

 

 

QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE

Contents

1.     Basic Tips For Calculation 

2.     Arithmetic 

2.1 Number System

2.1.1 Introduction

2.1.2 Classification of numbers

2.1.3 Classification of Natural numbers

2.1.4 Properties of Rational and Irrational numbers

2.1.5 Some important results on numbers

2.1.6 Tests of Divisibility

2.1.7 Modulus of a Real number

2.2 Surds and Indices

2.2.1 Square and Cube of a number

2.2.2 Square root and Cube root

2.2.2.1 Square root

2.2.2.2 Methods to find square root of a number

2.2.2.3 Cube root

2.2.3 Indices and Surds

2.2.3.1 Laws of Indices

2.2.3.2 Laws of Surds

            2.3 Fractions and Decimals

2.3.1 Basic concept of fraction

2.3.2 Classification and terminology of fractions

2.3.3 Calculation with fractions

2.3.3.1 Converting unlike into like fractions

2.3.3.2 Comparing fractions

2.3.3.3 To insert a fraction between two given fractions

2.3.3.4 Arithmetic operations on fractions

2.3.4 Decimal Fractions

2.3.4.1 Place value of digits

2.3.4.2 Inter-conversion between decimal numbers and fractions

2.3.4.3 Arithmetic operations on decimal numbers

2.3.4.4 Types of Decimal numbers

2.3.4.5 Rounding off

2.3.4.6 Significant figures

2.4 HCF and LCM                                            

2.4.1 Factors and multiples

2.4.2 Common factors

2.4.3 Highest Common factor (HCF)

2.4.3.1 Prime factorization method

2.4.3.2 Division method

2.4.3.3 HCF of Decimals

2.4.3.4 HCF of vulgar fractions

2.4.4 Least Common multiple (LCM)

2.4.4.1 Prime factorization method

2.4.4.2 Common Division method

2.4.4.3 LCM of Decimals

2.4.4.4 LCM of fractions

2.4.5 Relation between HCF and LCM

2.4.6 Comparison of fractions using LCM

2.5 Simplification

2.5.1 VBODMAS Rule

2.5.2 Basic arithmetic operations and symbols

2.5.3 Short cut methods for basic operations

2.5.3.1 Short cuts in Addition

2.5.3.2 Short cuts in Subtraction

2.5.3.3 Short-cuts in Multiplication

2.5.3.4 Short cuts in Division

2.5.4 Some algebraic formulae for simplification

2.6 Approximation

2.6.1 Addition and subtraction

2.6.2 Multiplication

2.6.3 Division

2.7 Ratio and Proportion

2.7.1 Definition and basic concepts

2.7.2 Ratio between more than two quantities

2.7.3 Compound ratio

2.7.4 Comparison of ratios

2.7.5 Proportion

2.7.6 Types of Proportion

2.7.7 Some specific cases

2.8 Average

2.8.1 Definition

2.8.2 Weighted average

2.8.3 Specific cases of average

2.8.3.1 Average speed

2.8.3.2 Average of Series of Numbers

2.8.3.3 Miscellaneous cases

2.9 Additional Topics in Arithmetic

2.9.1 Mixtures and Alligation

2.9.1.1 Introduction

2.9.1.2 Rule of Alligation

2.9.1.3 Different cases of Alligation and mixtures

2.9.2 Problems on Trains        

2.9.2.1 Basic concepts

2.9.2.2 Specific cases

2.9.2.2.1 Train moving past a stationary point object

2.9.2.2.2 Train moving past a stationary lengthy object      

2.9.2.2.3 Train moving past a moving point object

2.9.2.2.4 Train moving past a moving lengthy object

2.9.3 Unitary Method

2.9.3.1 Time and Distance

2.9.3.1.1 Basic definitions and concepts

2.9.3.1.2 Formulae for specific cases

2.9.3.2 Time and Work

2.9.3.2.1 Basic concepts

2.9.3.2.2 Formulae for specific cases

2.9.3.3 Pipes and Cisterns

2.9.3.3.1 Basic concepts

2.9.3.3.2 Basic principles

2.9.3.3.3 Specific cases and formulae

2.9.3.4 Boat and Streams

2.9.3.4.1 Basic concepts

2.9.3.4.2 Specific cases

 

3.     Commercial Maths 

3.1 Interest

3.1.1 Simple Interest

3.1.1.1 Basic definitions and concepts

3.1.1.2 Some specific cases

3.1.2 Compound Interest

3.1.2.1 Basic definitions and concepts

3.1.2.2 Compounding for different time periods and rates

3.1.2.3 Some specific cases

3.1.2.4 Cases relating Simple and Compound interest

3.2 Percentage

3.2.1 Definition

3.2.2 Conversion between Percent, fraction and decimal

3.2.3 Specific cases of Percentage

3.2.3.1 Percent relationship between quantities

3.2.3.2 Examinations and marks

3.2.3.3 Geometry

3.2.3.4 Depreciation

3.2.3.5 Population growth

3.2.3.6 Price and consumption

3.3 Profit and Loss

3.3.1 Definition

3.3.2 Rule of fraction

3.3.3 Specific cases of Profit and Loss

3.3.3.1 Relation between Cost price and selling price

3.3.3.2 Using false weights

3.3.3.3 Discounts

3.3.3.4 Multiple transactions

3.4 Partnership

3.4.1 Basic concepts

3.4.2 Basic principle of profit sharing

3.4.2.1 Simple partnership

3.4.2.3 Compound partnership

3.4.3 Specific cases 

4.     Mensuration 

4.1 Plane Mensuration

4.2 Solved examples on Plane Mensuration

4.3 Solid Mensuration                       

4.4 Solved examples on Solid Mensuration 

5.     Algebra 

  5.1 Elementary Algebra

5.1.1 Basic concepts

5.1.2 Arithmetic operations on algebraic expressions

5.1.2.1 Addition and subtraction

5.1.2.2 Multiplication

5.1.2.3 Division 

5.1.3 Algebraic Identities

5.1.4 Factors of Polynomials

5.1.5 HCF and LCM of Polynomials

5.1.6 Linear Equations

5.1.6.1 Solving a Linear Equation

5.1.6.2 Word problems on Linear Equations

5.1.7 Simultaneous Equations

5.1.7.1 Solving Simultaneous equations

5.1.7.2 Word problems on Simultaneous Equations

5.1.8 Quadratic Equations

5.1.8.1 Methods of solving Quadratic equation

5.1.8.2 Relation between roots and coefficients

5.1.8.3 To form a Quadratic equation with given roots

5.1.8.4 Word problems on Quadratic equations

5.1.9 Inequalities

5.1.9.1 Properties of Inequalities

5.2 Permutation & Combination

5.2.1 Fundamental principle of counting

5.2.2 Permutations

5.2.2.1 Important cases of permutation

5.2.3 Combination

5.2.3.1 Relation between permutation and combination

5.2.3.2 Important cases of Combination 

6.     Probability 

6.1 Basic terms and concepts

6.2 Mathematical definition of Probability

6.3 Mutually exclusive and independent events  

7.    Series 

7.1 Definition

7.2 Types of Series

7.2.1 Arithmetic Series

7.2.2 Geometric Series

7.2.3 Series of squares and cubes

7.2.4 Mixed series

7.2.5 Two tier Arithmetic series

7.2.6 Three tier Arithmetic series

7.2.7 Arithmetico-Geometric series

7.2.8 Geometrico-Arithmetic series

7.2.9 Twin series    

7.3 Suggested Steps for solving series problems

7.4 Different types of problems on Series

7.4.1 Finding the next term

7.4.2 Finding wrong/missing number

7.4.3 Two line number series

7.5 Some unique series

DATA INTERPRETATION

&

DATA SUFFICIENCY

Contents

1.        Data Interpretation

 

1.1              Introduction

1.1.1  What is Data Interpretation?

1.1.2   Need for Data Interpretation

1.1.3   Data Interpretation Vs Problem solving

 

1.2     Process of Data Interpretation    

 

1.2.1  Basic formulae

1.2.2       Units of measurement

1.2.3       Commonly used terms

 

1.3     Formats for Data Representation

 

1.3.1  Data tables

1.3.2  Case study form

1.3.3  Cartesian Line graphs

1.3.4  Bar charts

1.3.5  Pie charts

1.3.6  Geometry diagrams

1.3.7  Mixed diagrams

 

2.    Data Sufficiency

 

2.1              Introduction

 

2.2              Tips and strategies

 

2.3              Solved examples 

 

GENERAL MENTAL ABILITY

Contents

1. VERBAL TESTS

 

            1.1 Reasoning Tests

 

1.1.1       Direction and Distance Test

1.1.2       Classification (Odd man out) Test

1.1.3       Coding-Decoding Tests

1.1.4       Series Test

1.1.5       Relationships Test

1.1.5.1   Blood Relationships Test

1.1.5.2   Coded Relationships Tests

1.1.6       Alphabet Test

1.1.7       Conditions and Grouping Test

1.1.8       Number, Ranking and Time Sequence Test

1.1.9       Mathematical Operations

1.1.10   Cubes and Cubical Dice Tests

1.1.11   Data Arrangement Test

1.1.11.1   Linear Arrangement Test

                        1.1.11.1.1   Linear Sitting Arrangement

                        1.1.11.1.2   Linear Arrangement of Letters & Numbers

1.1.11.2   Complex Arrangement Test

1.1.12   Data Sufficiency Test

1.1.13   Sequential Output Tracing (Input)

 

1.2 Logic Tests

 

1.2.1   Syllogism

1.2.2   Statements Assumptions

1.2.3   Statements Arguments

1.2.4   Statements Conclusions

1.2.4.1 Coded Inequality

1.2.5   Statements Action

1.2.6   Inferences (Deriving Conclusions from Passages)

1.2.7   Cause and Effect

 

2. NON VERBAL TESTS

 

2.1     Problems Based On Symmetry

2.1.1       Problems On Mirror Images

2.1.2       Problems On Water Images

2.1.3       Completion of an Incomplete Pattern

2.1.4       Problems On Paper Folding

2.1.5       Problems On Paper Cutting

2.2     Problem Based On Visual Ability

2.3     Classification

2.4     Series

2.5     Analogy

 
ENGLISH

Contents

         1.         Parts of Speech

 

1.1         Noun

1.1.1          Kinds of Noun

1.1.2          Gender

1.1.3          Number

1.1.4          Case

1.2         Adjective

1.2.1          Kinds of Adjectives

1.2.2          Degrees of Adjectives

1.2.3          Rules

1.3         Pronoun

1.3.1          Kinds of Pronoun

1.3.2          Rules

1.4         Verb

1.4.1          Different Kinds of Verbs

1.4.2          Subject Verb Agreement

1.5         Adverb

1.5.1          The Kinds of Adverbs

1.5.2          Comparison of Adverbs

1.5.3          Some Rules Related to the Use of Adverbs

1.6         Preposition

1.6.1          Rules

1.6.2          Short List of One-Word Prepositions

1.6.3          General Rules Regarding Certain Prepositions

1.7         Conjunction

1.7.1          Classification of Conjunctions

1.7.2          Some Important Rules

1.8         Interjection

 

         2.         Articles

 

2.1         Kinds of Articles

2.1.1          The Indefinite Article

2.1.2          The Definite Article

 

         3.         Tenses

 

3.1         Classification of Tenses

3.1.1          Present Tense

3.1.2          Past Tense

3.1.3          Future Tense

3.2         Summary of Rules with Examples in Tabular Form

 

         4.         Punctuations and Capitals

 

4.1         List of Important Punctuation Marks

4.2         Rules Regarding Usages

4.3         Use of Capital Letters

 

         5.         Idioms and Phrases

 

5.1         Idioms

5.2         Phrases

5.3         Clauses

 

         6.         Sentences

 

6.1         Kinds of Sentences

6.2         Subject and Predicate

 

         7.         Active and Passive Voice

 

7.1         Active Voice

7.2         Passive Voice

7.3         Rules for Changing the Voice

7.4         Transformation of Sentences-Voice Change

7.5         Summary of Rules with Examples in Tabular Form

 

         8.         Direct and Indirect Speech

 

8.1         Direct Speech

8.2         Indirect Speech

8.3         Rules for Changing Direct into Indirect Speech

 

         9.         English Vocabulary

 

9.1         Antonyms

9.1.1          Strategies for Antonyms

9.2         Synonyms

9.2.1          Strategies for Synonyms

9.3         Analogies

9.3.1          Common Relationships

9.3.2          Strategies for Analogies

9.4         One Word Substitution

9.4.1          List of Popular Words

9.5         List of Most Frequently Misspelled Words

 

       10.      Fill in the Blanks

 

10.1     Types of Fill in the Blanks

10.1.1      Logical Fill in the Blanks

10.1.2      Paired Logical Fill in the Blanks

10.1.3      Grammar Based Fill in the Blanks

10.1.4      Missing Link in a Paragraph

10.1.5      Complete the Theme

10.1.6      Maximum Number of Times

10.2     Strategies for Fill in the Blanks

 

       11.      Cloze Test

 

11.1     Strategies for Cloze Test

 

 

       12.      English Usage Errors

 

12.1      Types of Errors

12.1.1      Errors in Case

12.1.2      Error in Subject Verb Agreement

12.1.3      Error in the Tense or Form of a Verb

12.1.4      Error in Subjunctive Mood

12.1.5      Error in Comparison

12.1.6      Error in the use of Adjective for Adverb or Vice-Versa

12.1.7      Error of Parallel Construction

12.1.8      Error in Diction or Idiom

12.2      Types of Common Errors

12.2.1      Common Errors in the Use of Articles

12.2.2      Common Errors in the Use of Nouns

12.2.3      Common Errors in the Use of Pronouns

12.2.4      Common Errors in the Use of Adjectives

12.2.5      Common Errors in the Use of Verbs

12.2.6      Common Errors in the Use of Adverbs

12.2.7      Common Errors in the Use of Prepositions

12.2.8      Common Errors in the Use of Conjunction

12.2.9      Common Errors in the Use of Tenses

12.2.10  Common Errors in the Use of Modals

 

       13.      Sentence Improvement and Sentence Correction

 

13.1     Sentence Improvement

13.1.1      Strategies for Sentence Improvement

13.2     Sentence Correction

13.2.1      Types of Format

13.2.2      Strategies for Sentence Correction

 

       14.      Rearrangement of Sentences in Paragraph and Rearrangement of Words in Sentence

 

14.1     Rearrangement of Sentences in Paragraph

14.1.1      Strategies for Rearrangement of Sentences in Paragraph

14.2     Rearrangement of Words in Sentence

14.2.1      Strategies for Rearrangement of Words in Sentence

 

       15.      English Comprehension

 

15.1     Types of Comprehension Based Questions

15.2     Strategies for Comprehension Based Questions

 

 

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